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ב ' ח

Passover Limood 

Chapter One

Passover Limood Video

Let The Exploration Begin


By Dr. Akiva Gamliel Belk

Dean of Jewish Studies

B'nai Noach Torah Institute, LLC

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Before beginning our exploration of the last six days of Jesus life there are several points to consider. Regardless of the conclusion we may each reach after reading The Last Six Days of Jesus Life my desire is that our journey should flow with interesting information and be filled with the richness of Jewish Passover Observances. It will be more authentic for the reader if I can help you to experience the thoughts and the struggles I felt. Slowly in a step-by-step way the Last Six Days Of JESUS life on Earth unfolded to me. I found myself asking unusual questions and having thoughts unaccustomed to me. Living through these experiences was both challenging and interesting. This book is a step-by-step guide through the last Six Days of JESUS Life on Earth. However it may not turn out just the way you would expect it to...  


Whenever an individual attempts to do a scholarly examination, rules must be established and followed for others to follow.

Rule One is we are going to read and discuss the Gospels from a literal position. This step by step guide will go no where if we attempt to bend, ignore or rationalize away what is written in the Four Gospels. 


Rule Two is we are going to examine written statements in the Gospels to determine their credibility.  Is the statement truthful? Is the statement accurate?  We are not considering the plausibility or feasibility or possibility of a statement. If a date and time can be measured we will measure it. Then the statement will be judged on the facts not the believability. 


Rule Three is to be factual, to be objective, to be honest and to support all findings with references. 


The Gospels will rise or fall based upon facts based upon what can be substantiated.


Dear Reader at the time I began this journey I was very biased even though this was not all that noticeable to me.  I expect the exact same bias from you. That is OK! 


My Christian bias of years ago is quite noticeable to me now. Let me share... That being the situation why should I expect anything different from the readers of this book. I expect the reader of this book to be a serious Christian with strong ties to their church, and to possess a dedication to weekly Bible study.  That individual would own more than $10,000 in Christian books, commentaries, reference guides, Greek and Hebrew Bibles each with at least one interlinear, an encyclopedia, Bible dictionaries and on and on... In fact it would be necessary to set aside one room in the house or at the business to accommodate all the books just as I did. So if I were to say that a degree of bias did not exist that would be a complete falsehood. Yet at that time, twenty years ago I would not have thought of my beliefs as being biased. I was biased in favor of Christianity. That is where I was. Yet at that time I thought being neutral was an achievable goal. I was steeped in Christianity. My father was a Pastor of a successful congregation. My father-in-law then was a former pastor. As a child I was raised to attend  9:30 AM Sunday School followed a 10:45 AM church service, a large family lunch, a short break then 6:00 PM youth service followed by 7:00 PM evening service. Then there was the middle of the week service and at times weeks of revival every night... There was visiting the sick, board meetings, teachers meetings, yearly conventions and on and on... Can you taste what it was like?  Should I share about speaking in tongues and tarrying for the Holy Spirit in the prayer room for hours?  We had a large prayer room off to the left of the platform in the front of the congregation. It is where people came to 'tarry for the Holy Spirit'. So dear reader if you are biased it's OK. If you are closed minded, its fine. If you enjoy hanging out with preacher types it's great. That is where I was at then... 


Whern I began my research I thought this exploration would be a fun Bible study with the congregation for a few weeks leading up to Passover. I thought the results were predictable. It didn't turn out this way. What could be so difficult about doing an examination of the last six days of Jesus' life?  If you feel this way then you are walking close to my steps. 


As my journey began one of my goals was to see if it were possible to establish the day of the week with the date that the calendar event took place on according to the Gospel writers of the Christian Writings. This would help the congregation relate to the events better. One would think that linking days like Palm Sunday and Good Friday etc. with dates from the Christian Writings would be a snap.  Actually this proved to be quite challenging.  Can it be done? Yes! Another goal was to conclude this examination with a Friday evening Seder meal. Get the Congregation involved. We would have some type of reenactment of the Last Super.  I would play the part of Jesus and members of the Congregation could play the parts of other interesting roles like Judas the trader, Doubting Thomas or Peter the stalwart.  Later on in our Journey we will need to lean heavily on our rules and our goals.  This never happened.


ב ' ח

Passover Limood 

Introduction

Passover Limood Video

Introduction


By Dr. Akiva Gamliel Belk

Dean of Jewish Studies

B'nai Noach Torah Institute, LLC

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Course Text Begins Here:


Dear Reader this is the second book in the Passover Series. The First was entitled, A Sincere Journey Ends Without JESUS.


In this book we are going to point out many places of disinformation. Some of this disinformation is intentional in my opinion. We are going to explain why the time period around Passover is so confusing. We are going to point out a number of inconsistencies between the Gospel Writers. We will observe that their writings are NOT in harmony.


One of the areas of confusion is in how time is measured in the Christian Writings. There is the traditional measurement of time according to the Hebrew Scriptures and then there is the time introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582/5342 From Creation known as the Gregorian Calendar. The measurement of time in the Christian Writings is according to the Hebrew Scriptures. However today, 432 years from when the Gregorian Calendar originated most individuals know very little about how time is measured according to the Hebrew Scriptures.  Come on... Why would anyone living in the 21 century want to learn how to measure time according to the Hebrew Scriptures? This confusion is complemented by almost three dozen different measurements of time. Yet, originally there was only one measurement of time. This one measurement is still used today. What is the purpose of the other calendars and their measurement of time? CONFUSION! Listen! There are over 730 religions in the world today. Is this progress? These religions have thousands of splinters into additional religions... Why is this so important?


Dear reader we are going to be measuring Jesus last week on earth chronologically. This can only be accurately done using the Hebrew Scripture's method of measurement. As we journey, the time issue will become obvious. One can overcome it but it is a challenge. Ask yourself - Do I want to know the Truth? How valuable is the Truth to me?


In Chapter One we begin with the goal I have for this book. I write, regardless of the conclusion we may each reach after reading The Last Six Days of Jesus Life my desire is that our journey should flow with interesting information and be filled with the richness of Jewish Passover Observances. It will be more authentic for the reader if I can help you to experience the thoughts and the struggles I felt.


We list a few rules this book will follow in the examination of Jesus Last six days on earth. Then I admit that twenty years ago my beliefs were biased in favor of Christianity. That is where I was then. This is where the story begins. Today I have returned to Judaism and try to live an observant life.


Chapter Two is a brief look at Biblical dates and times. They tell us when  the Festival of Passover or the Festival of Unleavened Bread begin. They inform us if the day is Sabbath or a High Holiday.  Sometimes they inform us of the day, the week or the month. We conclude that the Christian Writings were written using the same measurement of time as the Hebrew Scriptures. The changes in the measurement of time came about 1,500 years after the Christian Writings.


Chapter Three discusses the impact of modern technology, i.e. computers on Biblical research. 


Chapters Four through Nine discuss the measurement of Biblical Time in eight different categories. We discuss and teach how time is measured by Year, by Month, by Day, by Night, by Hour, by Week, by Holy Days. In addition to this we compare two measurement systems for most of these categories. There is clearly a difference of opinion about how time is measured. I discuss three different theories. There is no way to adequately express in this introduction the importance of the measurement of time in the last six days of Jesus life on earth. This is why I divided each chapter into it's own category. This keeps our thoughts organized and easier to reference back to as one studies. I find it quite unique that the Gospel writers break the last day of Jesus life down into hours. This is quite rare. Yet it is fascinating and assists in establishing important points Christians have difficulty with.


In Chapter Seven we examine the use of the Sabbath Day, i.e. the Seventh Day as an anchor  point to time measurement, time to and from, and as a time reference. Again there are those who argue that the use of the word Sabbath was in reference to Passover. Others teach that the use of the term Sabbath Day was in reference to both Sabbath and Passover. Then there are those that teach the use of Sabbath Day was in reference to the Seventh Day of the week, i.e. Sabbath. We discuss which position is correct and prove with  references as to why it is correct. We dispute the other arguments. 


Chapter Eight is another anchor in a chain of days that are established in the Hebrew Scriptures. On the fourteenth day of the month late in the afternoon is when the Passover Lamb is killed. Then a little later at nightfall is the beginning of the Passover Seder Meal. Both of these fall during the Festival of Matzah, i.e. Unleavened Bread. Then there is the Seventh Day of Passover. Dear Reader once we establish a day and a date it is simply a matter of working back and forth. In addition Christians claim Jesus rode into Jerusalem on Sunday. They teach the crowd laid palm branches and garments in his path. They say this was his triumphant entry into the holy city. 


In Chapter Nine we speak of Preparation Day as a point of time measurement and reference. Some argue that Preparation Day when used in the Gospels is in reference to Sabbath. Some argue  Preparation Day is in reference to Passover. Others teach  Preparation Day is in reference to both Sabbath and Passover. However once we establish the first day of the week as a day and time anchor, it is not difficult to work back from to prove which position is correct.


Chapter 10 is about John's statement that Jesus last meal was the [last] Supper. John states this was before the Passover Seder Meal. Matthew, Mark and Luke dispute John's position. We examine both positions to determine who is correct. There are some very clear issues with both positions.


Chapter Eleven is a 'Detour' where we take side streets so to speak to determine if John's position is correct. Come on! The Gospel writers say John was one of Jesus disciples for three years. Luke says John was one of those that went to prepare the Passover meal. Yet John says it was not the Passover meal it was a supper before Passover. This is an important date. This is the last meal with Jesus. That night Jesus is taken into custody by guards. The next day he is killed. Or is he? The point is that John should remember when it was. May individuals measure events in time from the death of a loved one. Is it possible John could have confused such an important event? Then we must ask, at that time, was Jesus death an important event?  Maybe, the Catholic Church has made Jesus death an important event. 


Chapter Twelve is entitled, More Conflict With John. Why? Most Bibles are 'Red Letter' editions. The red letters are supposed to be the very words Jesus spoke. People that love Jesus cling to his words and to his quotes. Well based on what Jesus says in Matthew, Mark and Luke we have more conflicts with what John says. 

Dear Reader, do you see the many angles of the last six days of Jesus life on earth? 


Chapter Thirteen is what this book is all about. Chapter Thirteen is the chronological day by day account from the 8th Day of the First Month when Jesus came to Bethany through when Jesus died on the 15th Day of the  First Month.  The time frame is actually a little longer than six days. I include a chronological connection to every day  and night referenced in the Gospels during this time frame. The reader will be able to follow the journey of Jesus from Bethany to the triumphant Entry to Jerusalem to the casting out of the money exchangers to the cursing of the fig tree to the preparation for the final Passover Seder Meal to the death and burial of Jesus to the first Day of the week. 


Because I am Jewish and have a strong Christian past I share many helpful points that the non-Jewish world many be unaware of. Even though some Christian readers may be unhappy with points I make, each point is referenced so the reader can determine for her or his self what the truth is. The point of this book was and continues to be, a sincere examination of the last six days of Jesus life on earth. There is a great deal readers may learn from the time applications we discuss in this book. I have spent many years in preparing this book. God Willing another book dealing with controversial issues will follow this book. Originally I intended to included these as part of this book. They are important and interesting but need to be kept separate because they deal with other issues.


ב ' ח

Passover Limood 

Chapter Two

Passover Limood Video

How Time Is Measured?


By Dr. Akiva Gamliel Belk

Dean of Jewish Studies

B'nai Noach Torah Institute, LLC

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Genesis 1.14

And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years. 


Here we learn that days, nights, Holidays and years are to be used to measure the day, night, Holidays months and years.


Exodus 12.1

This month shall be to you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. 


Prior to this Observance Biblical time was measured From Creation. Now all the Holidays of the Bible are measured from the Month Passover is observed in. 


Exodus 12.3

Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for a house;


No where in the False Testament do we read of Rabbi Jesus or his disciples  taking a lamb on the 10th of the firfst month. We do not know if they followed this Observance or not.


Exodus 12.6

And you shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.


Exodus 12.18 - 20

 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty first day of the month at evening. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses; for whoever eats that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger, or born in the land.  You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall you eat unleavened bread. 


In Rabbi Jesus time we know that Passover began Yom Shi Shi, i.e. Thursday night. How do we know this?  


And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, Mark 15:42 


And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man, and a just: The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them; he was of Arimathaea, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God.This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid. And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on. Luke 23:50 - 54



How was time measured in the Gospels?


Are Biblical dates and times important? What purpose do dates and times serve?


Dear reader, Biblical dates and times tell us when  the Festival of Passover or the Festival of Unleavened Bread begin. They inform us if the day is Sabbath or a High Holiday.  Sometimes they inform us of the day, the week or the month. The writer Matthew makes more than 20 direct references to the Biblical dates and days during the last six days of Jesus life. Mark, Luke and John add another 38.


Matthew 4:12; 12:1; 12:40; 13:1; 15:32; 16:21; 17:1; 17:23; 20:19; 22:23; 26:2, 26:5; 26:17; 26:61; 27:19; 27:40; 27:62; 27:63; 27:64; 28:1. 


Mark 1:21; 2:23; 6:2; 9:31, 10:34; 12:12; 14:1; 14:12; 14:14: 14:16; 15:42; 16:2;


Luke 1:59; 2:41; 2:44; 4:16; 9:22; 13:16; 14:1; 22:1; 22:7; 22:8; 22:11; 23:43; 23:56; 24:1; 


John 1:39; 2:13; 2:23; 5:9; 6:4; 7:2; 10:22; 11:55; 12:1; 13:1; 18:28; 19:14


If dates, times and words were not important then why did the Gospel writers use them. The writer Matthew used these words to identify times and places for us the readers. In addition Matthew associates important events with the hour they occurred 14 times. Mark, Luke and John add an additional 13 references to the hour an event happened.


See: 

Matthew 8:13; 9:22; 10:19; 15:28; 17:18; 20:3; 20:5; 20:6; 20:12; 24:36; 24:44; 26:55; 27:45,46.  


Mark 13:35; 14:37; 14:41; 15:25; 15:33; 14:34


Luke 12:39; 22:14; 23:44; 24:33


John 4:6; 19:14; 19:27


We have the same right to use these times and dates to support, dispute or challenge, if necessary.


I see no variation from the way time was measured in the Christian Writings, from how time was measured by Moses, Joshua, David etc.  The Torah method of measurement of time is reinforced in the Christian Writings many times over. In the Christian Writings the Sabbath is always recognized as the Seventh Day.  The High Holy Days are in their proper seasons. The measurement of hours in the Christian Writings was the same as thousands of years in the past.


ב ' ח

Passover Limood 

Chapter Three

Passover Limood Video

Computers & Passover Planning And Costs - 4


By Dr. Akiva Gamliel Belk

Dean of Jewish Studies

B'nai Noach Torah Institute, LLC

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Course Text Begins Here:

We begin our journey by attempting to set a foundation for the days of the week each event occurred on. Connecting the day of the week with the date the event happened proved challenging. 


If one thinks back to the time before computers became a very large part of our lives, research was approached quite differently than today.  Around 1985 / 1986 Apple introduced the Mac Computer and later the Mac Plus Computer. That is when I became a computer person. This began opening up a brand new world of research for Biblical Scholars, Pastors, Congregation Leaders, Teachers etc. Our printing business purchased our first Mac. It was wonderful. Before long we owned several Macs. At that time few individuals would spend the $1,000.00 to $2,000.00 to own a Mac.  Not only did we spend the money but we purchased software from retailers like Zondervan Books. We were, so to speak, on the cutting edge.

So if you were to go back with me to that time 27 years ago it would be necessary to own several Mac's to do the research. I sat at the company computer in the layout and design room of our printing business, which was about three miles from the Congregation I Pastored.  I began the  study of Jesus last six days on earth by laying out the four Gospels in four columns.  I sat there thinking this is really cool.  It's great to own a computer... Next when the feeling of satisfaction eventually calmed, I began searching for a date in the Gospels leading up to Passover that I could connect with the Torah portion of the Bible, (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus & Deuteronomy).  It had to be a firm clear reliable date that others would be able to see, understand and agree with.


Establishing dates with days was very important so I struggled with this for a while. Why?  We have Christian days associated with the Jewish Celebrations of Passover.  The Jewish calendar is based upon a lunar cycle. Guess what? Christians also follow the lunar calendar to a degree. Christians observe Easter around the same time Jews Observe Passover. I encourage the reader to study this area in a little more depth. So let's acquaint ourselves with how the Biblical calendar / the lunar calendar functions.


ב ' ח

Passover Limood 

Chapter Four

Passover Limood Video

Lunar Year / Solar Year - 5


By Dr. Akiva Gamliel Belk

Dean of Jewish Studies

B'nai Noach Torah Institute, LLC

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Chapter 4


Lunar Year / Solar Year


The Torah portion of the Bible Teaches we are to measure our time by the sun, moon and stars. So it is proper to measure accordingly. 


Genesis 1.14

And God Said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the Heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years...


Judaism measures time several ways. We measure years F.C., i.e. From Creation. 


Catholics and Christians for the past 431 years have been measuring time in terms of years from when they estimate Jesus was conceived. This would be from around 3760 F.C. From 3760 F.C. Christians measure back using B.C. Or measure forward using A.D. There is no zero year. Jews contribute to the confusion of this system of measurement by using BCE instead of BC and CE instead of AD. Our Creator confused the languages and we have confused just about everything else. For the most part, this paragraph will not be a part of the discussion.


A Lunar month in the Bible is the time between two new moons. A new moon is reached when the moon is closest to the Sun. A new moon is the first visible crescent of the moon after conjunction with the sun.. In terms of time a lunar month is 29 days, 12 hours and 44 minutes. A Lunar month consists of either 29 or 30 days. 


In Judaism we are to Sanctify the moon. This is called, Kiddush Levanah. We say special prayers and blessings one evening, normally after Sabbath has past. We say these blessings outside of the synagogue when when we can view the moon. One may Sanctify the moon in individual prayer but it is best to do so in a minyan, i.e. with ten Jewish men above the age of twelve.


On one occasion I was saying  Kiddush Levanah at our Colorado mountain home which was close to a forest area. As I was saying the prayers a conversation with a local businessman slipped into my mind. He told me that he saw two mountain lions chasing deer on the street in front of our home around 11:00 at night. Can you imagine what it is like to  Sanctify the moon knowing a mountain Lion might be near by? 


Dear Reader the point is that where ever Jews are, we are required to Observe Kiddush Levanah. This is a very important Observance because Kiddush Levanah was the first Observance given to the Children of Israel. Rabbi Moshe Weissman, The Midrash Says (Brooklyn, New York: Benei Yakov Publications 1980), p. 89.


Our Sages Teach that on the First Day of the First Month that the Lord Said,


Exodus 12.1

And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the First Month of the year to you.


From this our Sages Teach that we should go out to meet the New Moon, i.e the New Month. Rabbi Yochanan taught that one who goes out to Bless the New Moon in its proper time is like one who greets God's Presence, i.e. the Shechinah. The second purpose has to do with the Jewish People's rebirth... The Jewish people in Egypt were in decline just as the moon is once a month. Then as the moon is reborn from it's lowest point so are the Jewish people reborn. Rabbi Menachem Davis, The Shottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash Bereishis / Genesis, {Brooklyn, New York: Mesorah Publications, Ltd. First Edition 1st impression 2007}, p 454.


ב ' ח

Passover Limood 

Chapter Five

Passover Limood Video

When Does A Day Begin And End?


By Dr. Akiva Gamliel Belk

Dean of Jewish Studies

B'nai Noach Torah Institute, LLC

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When Does A Day Begin And End?


The Biblical day begins with nightfall one evening and ends with nightfall the next evening. How do we know this?


Genesis 1.5

... the evening and the morning were

Day One.


Genesis 1.8

... the evening and the morning were

the Second Day.


Genesis 1.13

... the evening and the morning were

the Third Day.


Genesis 1.19

... the evening and the morning were

the Fourth Day.


Genesis 1.23

...the evening and the morning were

the Fifth day.


Genesis 1.31

...the evening and the morning were

the Sixth day.


The Christian writers understood a day began at evening.  This can be seen by John's comment.


John 20:1

On the first day of the week Mary Magdalene came to the tomb while it was early, when it was yet dark, and saw the stone taken away from the sepulcher.


The first day of the week had already begun.  It was still dark. The sun had not risen. The first day of the week began at nightfall after Saturday day.  It was termed 'the first day' and 'it was yet dark'.  The sun had not come up. This explanation clarifies that there was no disagreement about how a day was defined until 431 years ago when  Pope Gregory XIII introduced the Gregorian Calendar. The Gregorian Calendar begins and ends a day at 12:00 am. It is NOT in the mid of night. The mid of night varies according to the time of the year.


Dear Ones, understanding when a day begins and ends in the Bible is very important in relation to the six days leading up to Jesus' death. We will come and go from this point many times in this book. One can see the confusion between the Biblical measurement from that of the Gregorian measurement. The Biblical measurement points to God who Created the world in six days / time periods. When one was making an appointment one would have to return to God's point of reference. The Biblical measurement kept God in our life as a focal point. 


Passover is the First Month of the religious New Year for the Children of Israel. Passover begins on the afternoon of the 14th day of the first month.  Passover begins on Thursday, the Fifth Day of the week. The Festival of Unleavened Bread begins at night fall on the 15th Day of the First Month which is the beginning of the Sixth Day of the Week, Thursday night.


Matthew 26:17

Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover?


The disciples knew this was the 14th day of the first month. They knew this day was Thursday, the fifth day of the week.


Matthew 26:18

And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master saith, My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at your house with my disciples.


Note the words, 'Go into the city' Jesus and his disciples were not in Jerusalem when they asked this question. Matthew, Mark and Luke agree that Jesus was outside the city of Jerusalem.


ב ' ח

Passover Limood 

Chapter Six

Passover Limood Video

How Is A Bibl;ical Hour Measured?


By Dr. Akiva Gamliel Belk

Dean of Jewish Studies

B'nai Noach Torah Institute, LLC

 Order Class Textbook


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Course Text Begins Here:


Chapter 6


How Is A Biblical Hour Measured?


The Biblical hour is determined by dividing the length of daylight by twelve. The length of brevity of a Biblical day does not matter. A Biblical Day is 1/12th of the entire daylight and a Biblical Night is 1/12th of the darkness. If one were to measure a Biblical hour by minutes an hour could be as long as 75 minutes or as short as 45 minutes.


The Gregorian hour is based upon 60 minutes.  There are 12 hours in a Gregorian day. Some of the 12 hours of daylight, when days are shorter in winter, will actually be in darkness.  The daylight hours are shorter. Some of the 12 hours of darkness, when nights are shorter in summer, will actually be in daylight. The night time hours are shorter. Some of the 12 hours of daylight in summer will actually be longer than 12 hours.  The daylight hours will exceed 12 hours. Some of the 12 hours of darkness in winter will actually be longer. The night time hours will exceed 12 hours.

I understand this is confusing. Pope Gregory XIII introduced this confusion into our lives. If one were to view the Christian Writing using the Gregorian day or the Gregorian hour instead of the Biblical day or hour the results would be quite different. The Gregorian measurement of time draws one into confusion.


We are going to review several examples of a Biblical hour.


If the length of our present daylight is fourteen 60 minute hours the Biblical measurement for this same time is 12 - 70 minute hours.  The Biblical measurement of an hour expands and contracts within twelve hours. So an hour is rarely 60 minutes. 


If the length of our present daylight is fourteen 60 minute hours in the Gregorian measurement of time an hour remains as sixty minutes. The hours of daylight expand or contract. A day is rarely 12 hours. 


The Biblical measurement of a day is measured by daylight. The Biblical measurement of night is measured by darkness. The Gregorian measurement of a day is 12 hours. The Gregorian measurement of a night is 12 hours. 


A few years back, a business lady and I were supposed to meet at Denver's Eastside Kosher Deli for lunch. We set the appointment for around 11:00 am. We set the appointment somewhere between a few days to several weeks in advance. I arrived a few minutes before 11 am. Selected a booth and ordered a soft drink. After waiting about 15 minutes I began to wonder if it was the wrong day so I checked my day planner. Nope, it was today at 11am. I began to wonder what happened.  Then I realized we had a time change and one of us failed to make the adjustment by moving the clock ahead an hour. Shortly my cell phone rang... This happens all the time when daylight savings begins and ends. What is the point? How does this relate to an hour thousands of years ago? I am told that Bartholomew Manfredi, and Italian clockmaker invented the first pocket watch in 1462. In 1670 and English clockmaker named William Clement  is credited with the development of the Grandfather style clock. We know that sundials and water clocks were in use two thousand years ago. In fact many different forms of measuring time existed. The form that we are discussing, i.e. the measurement of an hour depended on being able to see the sun and the moon. How would one measure time two thousand years ago on a very cloudy day? How would one know what time to meet another? How would one set appointments? The writer Matthew shares a  story he says Jesus told about a householder that needed laborers to work in his vineyard. The  householder went out early in the morning to hire workers, then again at the third hour, the sixth hour, ninth hour and finally the eleventh hour of the day. They each worked to evening. The point is that morning and evening were the only exact points of measurement. There were other points of measurement. Animals are accustomed to eating at certain times and giving milk at certain times etc. Yet on a cloudy day these time measurements move. The point is that one could be off significantly in there measurement of an hour. 

Seeing the difference between The Biblical measurement of time from that of the Gregorian measurement of time helps us to see and acknowledge differences exist. On the other hand, we may not understand how the  Biblical measurement of time functions. God Willing, I am going to share  how the  Biblical measurement of time functions.


Please view Book For Example of 13.5 - 60 Minute Hours of Daylight


A Biblical day is always twelve periods of daylight and twelve periods of night.  The minutes of a Biblical hour increase or decrease but the number of hours always remain the same.  The way we understand time today is considerably different than Biblical hours.


Let's consider a day that has 13.5 hours of daylight, i.e. sunlight.  In our present system the sixth hour of the day is 6 A.M.  Remember the Gregorian measurement for a day begins a midnight. So while the 6th hour is 6 am The Biblical measurement begins at daybreak. This means the Biblical 6th hour is actually 12:30 pm of the Gregorian hour. This means one has crossed over to the 12 hours of night time by 30 minutes. Remember it is 12:30 pm. The ninth hour of our day is 9 a.m. The Biblical 9th hour is actually 3:30 pm of the Gregorian hour. This is 3 hours and 30 minutes into the 12 hours of night time. 


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