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ב ' ח

Parshat Devarim Ki Teitzei

Deuteronomy 21.10 - 25.19

Time And Gematria:

Unique Mentions Of Time In The Torah

Lesson Six


By Dr. Akiva Gamliel Belk

Dean of Jewish Studies

B'nai Noach Torah Institute, LLC

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Dr. Akiva Gamliel and Rebbetzin Revi Belk

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Dear Ones

This week in our Parshat, We have many references to time. The references to time in this week's Parshat Are unique in this instance. Words that we commonly associate with Time like day, week, month and year are not frequently used in this weeks Parshat. Instead, Time is mentioned in other ways. For example Deuteronomy 21.10 - 11.

Deuteronomy 21.10 - 11

When you go forth to war against your enemies, and the Lord, your God, has delivered them into your hands, and you have taken them captive, 

And see among the captives a beautiful woman, and desire her, that you would have her as your wife; Then you shall bring her home to your house; and she shall shave her head, and pare everything from Aleph to Tav of her nails; And she must discard her prison garb from upon her, and shall remain in your house, and bewail everything from Aleph to Tav of her father and everything from Aleph to Tav of her mother for A Month of Days; and after that you shall go into her, and be her husband, and she shall be your wife.

'When you go forth to war against your enemies' Speaks of the time. We don't know specifically when that time will be at this minute. This time is not defined like The Sabbath, The Seventh Day. This time is not defined like Passover we know when Passover comes. This time is not defined like Rosh Hashanah or Yom Kippur. We know when Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur come. This time as defined by The Words 'when you go forth to war against your enemies. The time that The Torah is speaking about does not begin until specifically then. This is one of those unique times that we are discussing in this weeks Parshat.

The second part to time in this Verses after the Lord your God has delivered our enemies into our hands. The first time as we go to war. The second time is after were successful in the war and our enemies are defeated. The third time is when we take them captive. The fourth time is when we see a beautiful woman and desire her as a wife. The fifth time is when one brings this beautiful Captive woman to one's home, and she shaves her head until she's completely bald. Then she pairs for nails. Then she changes garments. She removes her garments of captivity. The sixth time is the 30 days of morning for her mother and father. After all six of these times are completed then at that point that the seventh time begins. The individual that desires her can marry her. The Torah mentions seven different times with only one direct reference to a time, i.e. 'A Month of Days.' 

A portion of our discussion regarding 'A Month of Days' must form around the words אֵשֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּאַר Ay Shet - Yih Paht - Toh Ahr - meaning A Woman who is beautiful, who is of appropriate form. Another meaning may also be 'a beautiful woman who is shapely apportioned'. Those that believe this is the correct interpretation suggest The Torah is trying to bring the soldier to his senses by having this beautiful woman mourn for her Father and Mother in his home for 30 days and by having her shave her head and cut her nails. The intent, they say is to make this beautiful woman appear unattractive and unappealing. Rabbi Nosson Scherman, The Stone Edition The Chumash (Mesorah Publications, Ltd., Brooklyn, N.Y. 1993), p. 1046

I feel that the first definition is accurate For several reasons. The only place in The Torah that the words The Words יֶרַח יָמִים Yeh Tah Ach Yaw Meem / A Month of Days appear is in Deuteronomy 21.13. Therefore, we recognize these words carry a special meaning and intention. Our duty is to understand the intention.

We must look behind the scenes to see what's there. When Ha Torah says, 'A Month of Days' It may appear like this is in reference to any month in the lunar cycle of either 29 or 30 days. However, our Sages Teach this is specifically in reference to The Month of Elul. During the month of Elul, we blow the shofar each day except for Shabbat. When the month of the Elul concludes, we celebrate Rosh Hashanah, The Day of the Shofar blowing, the day of judgment and the birthday of the world. Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, Torah Chumash Devarim Kehot Publication Society (Brooklyn, NY 2011) p 125

Normally one begins morning on the day of death. However, here it appears to be different. The Words יֶרַח יָמִים Yeh Tah Ach Yaw Meem / A Month of Days may be interpreted as 'A Moon of Days'. Also, we need to keep in mind that the captive woman is not Jewish. Therefore, she will need to convert before the soldier can marry her. No matter how much the soldier desires her, he may not force her to convert. The Beautiful woman must choose to convert to Judaism on her own. 

The conversion process for the beautiful woman is timely. The beautiful woman must be taught all 613 Mitzvot of The Torah. She must understand. She must except them and practice them. This takes time. Observant conversions normally require a minimum of one year. 

Rabbi Ellie Monk writes in The Call Of The Torah that the soldier is Spiritually perceptive. He is not lustful! He sees a beautiful woman. What is it that he sees? He sees the soul of this beautiful woman. She is beautiful because of her spiritual relationship to the Lord. Therefore, he takes her to provide her soul the opportunity to observe all 613 mitzvot of Ha Torah as a convert. He takes a position formed by Ohr HaChaim and other Kabbalists. Rabbi Eli Munk, Call of the Torah, The Artscroll Mesorah Series, (Brooklyn, New York: Mesorah Publications, Ltd. 3rd Impression, 1994), pp 215 - 216

The Torah requires that the beautiful woman cut her hair. This is symbolic of removing her former intellect. As she learns The Torah and her hair begins to grow again she takes on a new intellect of one that is Torah observant. 

The Torah requires that the beautiful woman cut her nails. This is symbolic of removing superfluous emotional indulgences. Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, Torah Chumash Devarim Kehot Publication Society (Brooklyn, NY 2011) p 125 also cutting one's nails is in preparation for the Mikvah Conversion. Why? The entire body must be entirely immersed in a fresh flowing body of water. This is symbolic of cleansing oneself of the past.

Mystically there is a connection between 'A Month of Days' and dwelling. Remember how our discussion begin. 'When you go to war against your enemies.' The beautiful woman is from among the enemies of The Lord God and The People of Israel. The soldier has taken his enemy captive. Normally enemies of war are in prison camps. So why does The Torah say 'You won't bring her into your home?.' We teach their home is a sacred place where Taurus sayings are taught. Wouldn't this perhaps be disruptive to the home atmosphere and the learning out Torah? One can not tolerate disruptive behavior in their home especially during the month Elul! So we know there has to be more to what the Torah is telling us here. I believe The Torah is informing us that the soldier has removed this beautiful lady from the negative and harmful environment and in turn has placed her in an environment of Spirituality and Torah Observances. In other words, she used to dwell in a bad environment and now she dwells in A Torah observant environment. This dwelling is for 'A Moon of Days' or 'A Month of Days.' Often when the Word יָמִים Yah Meem is used this is reference to a year. Remember in Chapter One where we discussed יָמִים Yah Meem in Deuteronomy 1.46 and 2.1? 

The point is that we know conversation requires at least a year. We also know that  יָמִים Yah Meem is used in reference to Years. The righteous soldier takes the beautiful woman to his home to learn and observe Torah for a year. During this time, she is dwelling in his home. However, the intent is that she is dwelling in Torah learning and observance.

יֶרַח יָמִים

Yeh Tah Ach Yaw Meem / A Month of Days

י10 ר200 חי10 מ40 י10 ם40 = 318


Yoh Shayv / To Dwell

י10 וש300 ב2 = 318

Remember, The normal. For mourning is Seven Days. When the Torah Says,  יָמִים Yah Meem 'A Moon of Days' or 'A Month of Days', We understand there is an intended meaning that we must search for. It is clear! This is not the normal type of mourning. This is a different type of mourning. As noted earlier, the period for mourning her father and her mother in this situation is during the month of Elul. The beautiful woman has concluded her year of Torah learning and is preparing to convert. The last stage of her preparation is to mourn the month of Elul for her father and her mother. Then on the eve of the birthday of the world, on the day of judgment, on The Day of Remembering and on the day we blow the shofar the beautiful woman completes her conversion by going to the mikvah and immerses herself thus completing the conversion process. She is now available to her husband. 

What does The Torah Say about Sarah, Rachel, and Hannah? 'On The New Year Sarah, Rachel and Hannah were visited,' i.e. they conceived.' Think about what this means. Rosh Hashanah is this incredibly Holy Day. Rosh Hashanah is also a date for physical relations with ones spouse. It is on this day that soldier and the beautiful woman consummate their marriage.

Deuteronomy 21.18 - 21

If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son, who will not obey the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and who, when they have chastened him, will not listen to them; Then shall his father and his mother lay hold of him, and bring him out to the elders of his city, and to the gate of his place; And they shall say to the elders of his city, This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will not obey our voice; he is a glutton and a drunkard. And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones that he dies; so shall you put evil away from among you; and all Israel shall hear, and fear.

We have another example of time not being mentioned in verses 18 through 21. The first mention of time is 'if a man has a stubborn son.' The second dimension of time is 'if a man has a rebellious son.' The third dimension of time is when the son refuses to 'obey the voice of his father'. The fourth dimension of time is when the son refuses to 'obey the voice of his mother.' 

Somewhere in the midst of these times are two other times. There are the times when the son is gluttonous. There is the time when the son is a drunkard. How many times does it take For one to be gluttonous? How make times doesn't take for one to be a drunkard? These times are evidence. But we cannot say how many times each represent. It takes to determine when one is gluttonous and Time to become a drunkard.

The next dimension of time is when each of these times has been repeated multiple times. Then the next Time is when the father and the mother take hold of their son and bring him to the elders of the city at the gate place. There has to be a determination. The son has to be found guilty. There have to be witnesses. Finally, After all of these Times are completed The final Time comes where the son is stoned to death, and he dies.

Deuteronomy 21.22 - 23

And if a man has committed a sin deserving death, and he is to be put to death, and you hang him on a tree; 23  His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but you shall bury him that day; for he who is hanged is accursed by God; that your land, which the Lord your God gives you for an inheritance, be not defiled.

At the conclusion of Chapter 21, Scripture speaks of a time when a man has committed a capital offense that deserves death. Then scripture speaks of the Time after he has been put to death. Scripture is speaking to the time when his body is hanging on a wooden tree. There are some times indicators in the above examples where Scripture is speaking of definite times. Scripture concludes this observance by giving us a definite reference to time, 'you are to bury him that day.' 

Within this Parshat, there are many examples of time observances. They don't stand out because keywords noting times are not used. Each of these is times.

Deuteronomy 24.16

When you lend your brother anything, you shall not go into his house to fetch his pledge. You shall stand outside, and the man to whom you lend shall bring out the pledge outside to you. And if the man is poor, you shall not sleep in his pledge; You shall deliver him the pledge back when the sun goes down, that he may sleep in his garment, and bless you; and it shall be righteousness to you before the Lord your God. 


Here are five questions for reflection. Those seeking course credit please post the answers or send answers to - SUBJECT BOX - Pasted ONLY these words in the subject box.

1. What is the normal period for mourning the loss of a loved one?

2. What is the Time The Torah Requires the beautiful woman to mourn for her Father and Mother?

3. When the beautiful woman cuts her hair and nails what do these actions symbolize?

4. Explain what is meant by writing, 'Words that we commonly associate with Time like day, week, month and year are not frequently used in this weeks Parshat.'

5. What is the minimum Time required for an Observant conversion?

ב ' ח

Passover Limood 

Chapter Four

Passover Limood Video

Lunar Year / Solar Year - 5

By Dr. Akiva Gamliel Belk

Dean of Jewish Studies

B'nai Noach Torah Institute, LLC

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Chapter 4

Lunar Year / Solar Year

The Torah portion of the Bible Teaches we are to measure our time by the sun, moon and stars. So it is proper to measure accordingly. 

Genesis 1.14

And God Said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the Heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years...

Judaism measures time several ways. We measure years F.C., i.e. From Creation. 

Catholics and Christians for the past 431 years have been measuring time in terms of years from when they estimate Jesus was conceived. This would be from around 3760 F.C. From 3760 F.C. Christians measure back using B.C. Or measure forward using A.D. There is no zero year. Jews contribute to the confusion of this system of measurement by using BCE instead of BC and CE instead of AD. Our Creator confused the languages and we have confused just about everything else. For the most part, this paragraph will not be a part of the discussion.

A Lunar month in the Bible is the time between two new moons. A new moon is reached when the moon is closest to the Sun. A new moon is the first visible crescent of the moon after conjunction with the sun.. In terms of time a lunar month is 29 days, 12 hours and 44 minutes. A Lunar month consists of either 29 or 30 days. 

In Judaism we are to Sanctify the moon. This is called, Kiddush Levanah. We say special prayers and blessings one evening, normally after Sabbath has past. We say these blessings outside of the synagogue when when we can view the moon. One may Sanctify the moon in individual prayer but it is best to do so in a minyan, i.e. with ten Jewish men above the age of twelve.

On one occasion I was saying  Kiddush Levanah at our Colorado mountain home which was close to a forest area. As I was saying the prayers a conversation with a local businessman slipped into my mind. He told me that he saw two mountain lions chasing deer on the street in front of our home around 11:00 at night. Can you imagine what it is like to  Sanctify the moon knowing a mountain Lion might be near by? 

Dear Reader the point is that where ever Jews are, we are required to Observe Kiddush Levanah. This is a very important Observance because Kiddush Levanah was the first Observance given to the Children of Israel. Rabbi Moshe Weissman, The Midrash Says (Brooklyn, New York: Benei Yakov Publications 1980), p. 89.

Our Sages Teach that on the First Day of the First Month that the Lord Said,

Exodus 12.1

And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the First Month of the year to you.

From this our Sages Teach that we should go out to meet the New Moon, i.e the New Month. Rabbi Yochanan taught that one who goes out to Bless the New Moon in its proper time is like one who greets God's Presence, i.e. the Shechinah. The second purpose has to do with the Jewish People's rebirth... The Jewish people in Egypt were in decline just as the moon is once a month. Then as the moon is reborn from it's lowest point so are the Jewish people reborn. Rabbi Menachem Davis, The Shottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash Bereishis / Genesis, {Brooklyn, New York: Mesorah Publications, Ltd. First Edition 1st impression 2007}, p 454.

ב ' ח

Passover Limood 

Chapter Two

Passover Limood Video

How Time Is Measured?

By Dr. Akiva Gamliel Belk

Dean of Jewish Studies

B'nai Noach Torah Institute, LLC

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Course Text Begins Here:

Genesis 1.14

And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years. 

Here we learn that days, nights, Holidays and years are to be used to measure the day, night, Holidays months and years.

Exodus 12.1

This month shall be to you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. 

Prior to this Observance Biblical time was measured From Creation. Now all the Holidays of the Bible are measured from the Month Passover is observed in. 

Exodus 12.3

Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for a house;

No where in the False Testament do we read of Rabbi Jesus or his disciples  taking a lamb on the 10th of the firfst month. We do not know if they followed this Observance or not.

Exodus 12.6

And you shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.

Exodus 12.18 - 20

 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty first day of the month at evening. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses; for whoever eats that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger, or born in the land.  You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall you eat unleavened bread. 

In Rabbi Jesus time we know that Passover began Yom Shi Shi, i.e. Thursday night. How do we know this?  

And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, Mark 15:42 

And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man, and a just: The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them; he was of Arimathaea, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God.This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid. And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on. Luke 23:50 - 54

How was time measured in the Gospels?

Are Biblical dates and times important? What purpose do dates and times serve?

Dear reader, Biblical dates and times tell us when  the Festival of Passover or the Festival of Unleavened Bread begin. They inform us if the day is Sabbath or a High Holiday.  Sometimes they inform us of the day, the week or the month. The writer Matthew makes more than 20 direct references to the Biblical dates and days during the last six days of Jesus life. Mark, Luke and John add another 38.

Matthew 4:12; 12:1; 12:40; 13:1; 15:32; 16:21; 17:1; 17:23; 20:19; 22:23; 26:2, 26:5; 26:17; 26:61; 27:19; 27:40; 27:62; 27:63; 27:64; 28:1. 

Mark 1:21; 2:23; 6:2; 9:31, 10:34; 12:12; 14:1; 14:12; 14:14: 14:16; 15:42; 16:2;

Luke 1:59; 2:41; 2:44; 4:16; 9:22; 13:16; 14:1; 22:1; 22:7; 22:8; 22:11; 23:43; 23:56; 24:1; 

John 1:39; 2:13; 2:23; 5:9; 6:4; 7:2; 10:22; 11:55; 12:1; 13:1; 18:28; 19:14

If dates, times and words were not important then why did the Gospel writers use them. The writer Matthew used these words to identify times and places for us the readers. In addition Matthew associates important events with the hour they occurred 14 times. Mark, Luke and John add an additional 13 references to the hour an event happened.


Matthew 8:13; 9:22; 10:19; 15:28; 17:18; 20:3; 20:5; 20:6; 20:12; 24:36; 24:44; 26:55; 27:45,46.  

Mark 13:35; 14:37; 14:41; 15:25; 15:33; 14:34

Luke 12:39; 22:14; 23:44; 24:33

John 4:6; 19:14; 19:27

We have the same right to use these times and dates to support, dispute or challenge, if necessary.

I see no variation from the way time was measured in the Christian Writings, from how time was measured by Moses, Joshua, David etc.  The Torah method of measurement of time is reinforced in the Christian Writings many times over. In the Christian Writings the Sabbath is always recognized as the Seventh Day.  The High Holy Days are in their proper seasons. The measurement of hours in the Christian Writings was the same as thousands of years in the past.


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